Aside from ruling the Macedonian kingdom, Alexander the Great (356 BC-323 BC) conquered a large portion of Greek territory. His relentless campaigns, the cult of personality erected around him, and his exceptional abilities as a strategist made him a reference for military institutions all over the world. His interest in Alexander the Great’s biography is sparked by the story of a man who is historically synonymous with power.

Summary of Alexander the Great’s biography

The index

  • A prince is born

  • Corinthian League

  • Against huge rivals, Alexander the Great

  • Death suspected of being suspicious

A prince is born

Alexander the Great was born in Pela, in the Greek kingdom of Macedonia. He was born on July 20, 356 B.C., the son of Philip II of Macedonia and Olimpia, his fourth wife. The first male child Olympias bore to Philip earned her the status of his main wife even though he had eight wives in total.

Since Philip spent most of his time in fierce military campaigns or having extramarital affairs, Alexander the Great developed a deep resentment towards him. Due to his status as a prince, he had access to the highest quality education. Aristotle taught Alexander philosophy, mathematics, politics, and poetry after he learned to handle the bow and ride a horse.


Homer’s Iliad was a favorite of Alexander the Great from a very early age. Aristotle, knowing that Alexander would take the essay with him to his future conflicts, created an abridged version of it for him.

340 B.C. marked the beginning of Alexander the Great’s first military expedition. Two years later, he accompanied his father on a campaign against the Athenian army against his will. As soon as the campaign ended, the alliance between the Greek states dissolved, even though the young man agreed with Philip’s idea to unite them against the Persian Empire. During the wedding of Alexander’s sister, the king was assassinated.

In the League of Corinth

After his father died, Alexander the Great was immediately supported by the Macedonian troops due to his battlefield exploits. Even Olympias, who personally killed Philip’s children by his most recent wife to clear the way for him, ordered the soldiers to assassinate other potential contenders. As of 336 B.C., Alexander had been declared king of Macedonia .

Taking control of the congregation of Greek states that his father had founded would be Alexander the Great’s biggest challenge on a political level. To defeat the Persians, dominating the League of Corinth was absolutely necessary. The Macedonian king sent his army to the southern states after the rulers refused to recognize Alexander.

The League of Corinth eventually recognized Alexander the Great as its leader after months of fighting. The coalition’s military power was thus under the Macedonian’s control and new objectives were set. In 334 BC, he reached Troy with his troops. Alexander’s army quickly outmatched the Persian king Darius III and his soldiers, and he was forced to flee.

Against huge rivals, Alexander the Great

In the year 333 B.C., Alexander the Great and his soldiers faced a counterattack by Darius III in the city of Iso. Alexander proclaimed himself King of Persia despite being outnumbered by the Macedonians. As soon as the conqueror led his men into Egypt, he encountered no resistance. Alexandria was founded in this territory to promote Greek trade and culture.

An army of lions led by a sheep would never scare me. Alexander the Great would fear an army of sheep led by a lion.

During his next conquest, Alexander the Great and his army headed for the Bactrian region. During this time, he faced Oxyartes, the top commander of the Bactrian troops. Meanwhile, King Poros, who ruled northern India, sought to drive the Greeks from his lands. Alexander won both battles by establishing Macedonian colonies in the east.

Death that appears suspicious

In spite of his victory, Alexander the Great maintained great respect for his last rivals and recognized their military capabilities. 327 B.C. He married Roxana, the daughter of Oxiartes, and restored Poros to power. Despite his desire to continue exploring, the conqueror returned to Persia to rest. In the Gedrosia desert, the platoon suffered terrible weather conditions until it reached its destination with thousands of casualties.

After returning to Susa, Alexander the Great aimed to win the Persians’ support in order to rearm his army. His political campaign promoted the marriage of Macedonians and Persian princesses in order to promote cultural syncretism. Although the Persians were successfully incorporated into the Greek army, tensions soon arose.

While preparing an invasion of Rome in 323 B.C., Alexander the Great lost his life in Babylon due to illness while preparing an invasion. Malaria and typhoid fever have been suggested as possible causes of his death. Nevertheless, some historians have speculated that he may have been poisoned as part of a conspiracy because of the tense political climate surrounding him at the time.

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